Cardiovascular (heart) surgery is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valvular heart disease from various causes including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. A more subtle complication of neurocognitive deficits attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass is known as post perfusion syndrome, sometimes called “pumphead”.
Open heart surgery is a surgery in which the patient’s heart is open and surgery is performed on the internal structures of the heart.